The EU and other countries have announced the addition of new lights to the new car, as well as the full ban, the incandescent lamp ban, coupled with the safety verification standards are ready, LED lights and main lighting demand climbed. In order to catch up with market opportunities, LED components, LED driver ICs and systems and other manufacturers have also stepped up the complete program to share this huge business opportunity.
The European Union has to install a dedicated daylight (DRL) for all new cars in 2012 to ensure safer driving. In addition, countries including the European Union, the United Kingdom, Japan, New Zealand, Australia, Canada, the United States, and Argentina have officially announced that they will completely ban and ban incandescent lamps by 2014 at the latest. Driven by national policies, light-emitting diode (LED) daylights and main lighting applications have become the focus of business opportunities for LED manufacturers after the backlight and street lighting market.
National policies accelerate the popularity of LED lights/main lighting
In order to make driving safer, the EU took the lead in the announcement on September 24, 2008, requiring that all new cars and minivans must be equipped with daytime running lights from February 2011; other trucks and buses are from 2012. A daytime running light is required from the 7th of the month. In addition to the European Union, other countries have begun to regulate the new cars of all types of vehicles to install daytime running lights. Currently, only Canadian regulations allow the use of low beam lights instead of daytime running lights.
Experts pointed out that since the running lights must maintain the brightness while the vehicle is running, the traditional running lights consume 25 to 30% of the headlights, so the LED light source with low power consumption and long service life becomes a new trend of research and development. LED daytime lights only need to consume 10% of the power of the headlights. Considering the trend of driving safety and energy saving demand, it is imperative to develop LED daytime running lights, which will become a new business opportunity for LED manufacturers to expand the lamp market.
Today, car manufacturer Audi is the most active LED daytime running light. Its A8, R8 and A4 series are equipped with LED daytime running lights, A8 uses Philips Lumileds' LuxeonEmittor as the running light source, and R8 and A4 use OSRAM Opto Semiconductors. OsramOptoSemiconductor)) AdvancedPowerTopLED and GoldenDRAGONLED; even the third generation A8, which is expected to be released in 2010, will be fully introduced into LED daytime running lights. In addition, many new car models launched by the automakers in the first half of this year are also equipped with LED daytime running lights, such as Benz.
In fact, in addition to the running lights, LEDs have been widely used in interior lighting, including instrument panels, backlight buttons, skylights, head-up displays, and more. OSRAM Opto Semiconductors said that the ColoronDemand feature allows automakers to use the company's unique identification colors to create differentiation from competitors or to differentiate between different colors.
In addition, the proportion of LED external lights continues to rise, such as the 2008 Cadillac Escalade first used LED headlights. Philips Lumileds said that the listed Lexus LS600h and Audi R8 are equipped with LED headlights. Among them, Lexus uses Philips Lumileds and Nichia's high-power LEDs. As for LEDs, the third brake lights and taillights. Demand for direction lights, side lights, low beam lights and high beam lights is also growing. LEDs are also often used in mid-size car taillights. In addition to the small size, stable temperature and long service life, the other advantage is that the reaction speed is fast and can be illuminated when the driver steps on the brakes. For example, Nissan's Tiana rear lights and Chrysler's third brake lights, directional lights and backlights have all used LED light sources.
Even though LED brake lights, direction lights and other signal light technologies have matured, LED headlights, front fog lamps and other lightings are still not popular. However, thanks to the promulgation of the National Liming Light Act, LED daytime lights have become a hot light application.
On the other hand, in order to comply with the general trend of energy conservation and emission reduction, countries have stopped production and banned incandescent light bulbs since 2009. In particular, EU countries will ban the sale of 100 watts of traditional light bulbs from September this year. In 2012, all traditional light bulbs will be completely banned. The area that was first implemented.
According to the forecast of a market-tuning agency, as the timetable for the ban on incandescent lamps by various governments has been released, the global overall lighting product update effect will gradually fertilize from 2010 to 2012. By 2012, the annual compound growth rate of LED lighting will be as high as 33%. In the future, LED lighting efficiency will gradually increase and the cost will drop. In the future, LED lighting will be able to cut into the field of indoor lighting.
With the help of national government energy conservation policies, LED lighting and main lighting market demand will be driven. In order to ensure the performance, reliability and safety of products early, the EU, North American government and safety certification agencies are also duty-bound, and have been targeting the lights and the main Lighting sets relevant standards and safety certifications.
Standard/safety verification is formulated to be close to the dense LED headlights/main lighting business opportunities
The EU has developed ECER112 and ECER87 specifications for LED daylights and headlights. Experts pointed out that LED lights are quite different from traditional car lights. Since the illumination of LED light sources will gradually increase, it is called stable period. The minimum illumination requirement must be reached within 1 minute of lighting, and the steady illumination should be achieved after lighting for 30 minutes, that is, within 1 minute and 30 minutes after lighting, the brightness value reaches the upper and lower limits of different lamp types. Within the range, for example, the upper and lower limits of the limp light are 1,200 cd and 400 cd; respectively, according to the EU LED directional lamp specification ECER6, the upper and lower limits are 1,000 cd and 175 cd; as for the LED position lamp ECER7, the upper and lower limits are 17cd, 4cd. In addition, he added that the use of LED headlights with increasing proportions, as well as taillights and brake lights, does not need to be lit for a long time, so long-term illumination is not required to be stable, except for the verification of the lights.
Furthermore, it is worth noting that the Thatcham Alliance, which is jointly called by all UK insurance companies, and the non-mandatory EMC certification service developed by Germany Rhein for claims requirements, mainly adapt to the need for additional battery loop systems for LED lights. To ensure the safety of the driver in the car, the vehicle is required to be verified by electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) to confirm that any electrical system in the vehicle meets the specified EMC specifications. Any new electronic products in the vehicle must also be verified by EMC, which has a greater impact on the aftermarket (AM). The alliance expects this service to be extended to European countries. In addition, the Thatcham verification program includes whether the after-loading product meets the specifications of the original product, including functionality and assembly.
At present, the main representative lamp customers are OSRAM, Philips, Valeo, Narva, etc., but the car market is not in good condition, and the verification order has also shrunk. As for the domestic market, the lamp verification requirements have not yet been received, but with the LED lights more Popularization, the proportion of LED lamps used by domestic automakers will also increase significantly. More than half of the existing autos are equipped with LED brake lights and directional lights. Therefore, domestic auto manufacturers have confirmed the demand for LED lights.
LED main lighting and lamp verification projects are very different. Most of the time, the opportunity of contact between the lamp and the human body is low, so electrical safety requirements are urgently required. Conversely, LED main lighting has this demand. In addition, LED lights only need to be verified by the system; however, LED lighting safety verification projects cover LED components and systems.
Different LED lighting safety requirements are very different, in addition to Europe and the United States for lighting equipment safety standards are not the same, the main difference is the voltage (230 volts in Europe, 120 volts in North America), standards for safety considerations and the differences in response to different structures .
The main items of LED lighting verification are electrical safety test, optical characteristics, EMC safety test and EU Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) / Electrical and Electronic Equipment Restriction of Substances (RoHS) Directive compliance test. Li Zhiming suggested that the verification prices of different lamps are different. In order to effectively reduce the verification cost, manufacturers must find components that meet the safety requirements.
Compared with Germany Rhein, UL is more active in the LED lighting safety verification market in North America. In addition to LED lamps, it also develops a safety verification draft for LED components. ULSubject8750.ULSubject8750 Safety verification project for LED components includes illumination Modules, control loops and power supplies.
UL said that because the previous traditional luminaire safety certification does not consider the characteristics of LED components, ULSubject8750 is a reinforced LED used in the traditional luminaire system safety standards, and is suitable for the safety verification of all LED luminaires.
As for the LED lighting safety verification project, it covers abnormal testing, electrical specifications and mechanical strength. Therefore, in addition to the basic testing of all luminaires, such as temperature, abnormal testing and insulation characteristics, considering that LEDs are semiconductor components, the characteristics of traditional lighting sources are very different. Therefore, the abnormal test project is specially planned. In terms of mechanical strength, the structure is mainly reviewed to confirm whether the switch and power line specifications meet the requirements of the lamp, and whether the distance between the relevant electrical devices causes a short circuit to avoid short circuit, open circuit or loop overload.
However, although LED lights and main lighting are promising under government policy and verification escorts, automotive and main lighting applications are more demanding than backlighting and street lighting, especially for LED headlights and indoor main light sources are extremely challenging for heat dissipation, luminous efficiency and reliability of LEDs. Therefore, in order to attack these two potential markets, LED manufacturers have successively developed LEDs with higher luminous efficiency and new heat dissipation and packaging technologies to accelerate market formation.
Headlight/main lighting emphasizes long life/high reliability
According to the market's Strategy Unlimited, the global high-brightness LED market output will climb from US$4.6 billion in 2007 to US$11.4 billion in 2012. Among them, lighting and backlight applications are the main growth drivers. In 2012, the market penetration rate reached 12%. 44%, the car lights maintain a 12% market share. It can be seen that regardless of the lamp or the main lighting market, it has become the target of LED manufacturers.
In order to be able to divide the market pie, LED manufacturers are racing to introduce solutions to improve LED heat dissipation, luminous efficiency and reliability. Philips Lumileds has become one of the representative manufacturers in the field of LED lamps. The LuxeonRebel series of high-power LED products developed by the company are well-known in the automotive industry. They are characterized by asymmetric LED architecture and are highly efficient in heat dissipation and luminous efficiency. Competitive in the market.
Experts believe that the luminous efficiency of LEDs has a great correlation with temperature. When the temperature increases, the luminous efficiency will decrease. Through the chip packaging technology, the thermal defects can be improved to improve the luminous efficiency. For example, Osram Opto Semiconductors' five chips OSTAR The highest lumen value is 1,000 lumens, but its thermal resistance is only 3K/W; the latest 1W OSLONSSLLED, its 7K/W low thermal resistance improves thermal management.
In addition, OSRAM Opto Semiconductors has developed GoldenDRAGONLED, AdvancedPowerTopLED and OSTARHeadlampLED for daytime running lights and headlights. The former indium gallium nitride (ThinGaN) chip produces 64 lumens of brightness at 350 mA, and the forward current has been 3.8 volts. Reduced to 3.2 volts. With only four GoldenDRAGONLEDs per headlight, it produces enough light during the day and consumes less power. As for the OSTARHeadlampLED, the brightness of the halogen lamp can be easily achieved. Each LED has up to five compact film chips, which conform to the AEC-Q101 automotive standard. Depending on the number of chips in series, the high-power LED can produce between 125 and 800 lumens at 700 mA from one chip to five chips.
In addition to LED packaging, LED driver ICs play an important role in improving conversion efficiency and reliability in automotive lighting and main lighting systems.
Improve power conversion efficiency / reliability LED driver IC takes on the task
According to the IMS forecast of the market regulation, by 2012, the global LED lamp driver IC shipments will increase by 14.4 million in 2005, a substantial increase of 72.4 million, compound growth in 2005~2012 The rate (CAGR) is as high as 86.4%. Due to the amazing growth, many LED driver IC manufacturers are attracted.
Considering the instantaneous voltage pulse wide range voltage LED lamp driver IC is the key to success
The operating voltage of the lamp and the LED are the same as direct current (DC) power, and the voltage volts value is too small, such as about 12 volts for the car and 24 volts for the big car, so the function appeal and design are relatively simple. However, it is important to note that the car generator is still the source of charging, and the instantaneous voltage pulse is generated when the power is generated instantaneously. Therefore, the LED driver IC can withstand a wider voltage range, which has become a prerequisite for the purchase of the lamp module manufacturer. .
National Semiconductor (NS) developed two LM3421 and LM3423 LED driver ICs for the lamp market, which can provide a wide range of input voltages up to 4.5~75 volts, can install up/down circuits, and adapt to cold start (Cold-Crank ) and load dump (LoadDump) conditions, and provide over current, over voltage and over temperature fault warning protection. In addition, in order to improve the stability of the LED driver IC and to connect with the main system, the company achieved this goal by increasing the number of LED driver IC pins.
National Semiconductor analyzes that automotive electronics will rise to 50-60 volts at high voltages; at low temperatures and without power, the voltage will drop to 7-8 volts. Therefore, the operating voltage range of LED lamp driver ICs needs to be wide. Supports instantaneous voltage pulse requirements for different lights.
On the other hand, Accumulation Technology uses the circuit and process to meet the temperature rise requirements of LED lamp driver ICs. Accumulation Technology pointed out that the high-stability LED driver IC provided by Accumulation Technology can reduce the heat generation, so the developed LED lamp driver IC can maintain normal operation at 105 Â°C. Unlike LED driver IC manufacturers such as National Semiconductor and Accumulation Technology, Texas Instruments only locks the main market to LED main lighting.
LED main lighting driver IC technology threshold high reference design / customized demand
Compared with LED lights, the main lighting design difficulty is to use AC-DC operating voltage. LEDs need to be equipped with transformers and fixed heat sinks to complete LED lighting design. Therefore, the importance of whether the application circuit of the LED driver IC matches the electronic transformer becomes more and more prominent.
To date, Texas Instruments has developed an LED driver IC that can match the electronic transformer of the projection lamp. Texas Instruments pointed out that LED driver ICs introduced by some manufacturers on the market have sparkling defects, precisely because of mismatch.
In addition, in the past, LED bulbs were equipped with heat sinks, so they were easy to conduct electricity. Traditionally, they were isolated by AC-DC step-down circuit. They provided DC power to drive the LEDs, but they easily caused electric shock and could not pass the safety regulations.
Now the latest two methods are isolated from the electrical equipment by the mechanism. The former can meet the safety requirements, but the cost and production are difficult. Therefore, the method of Texas Instruments is to take electrical isolation, which can consider the efficiency, cost and manufacturing difficulty.
On the other hand, AC-DC power conversion will use a transformer, which contains an electrolytic capacitor component, which will generate a chemical electrolyte. If it encounters high temperature, it will be evaporated. At this time, the capacitance value of the capacitor will decrease, which will cause the circuit to malfunction. To damage the power supply. Considering the above problems, the industry began to use solid capacitors instead of electrolytic capacitors to minimize the number of electrolytic capacitors. For example, Texas Instruments' MR16 solution now uses solid capacitors. The triode diode alternating current (TRIAC) dimming function prevalent in the North American lighting market can only be used for traditional light sources. However, today's LED driver IC design manufacturers use TRIAC-chopped Waveform to convert to DIM signals and decode them. It can support 100:1 dimming ratio and realize TRIAC dimming function of LED light source.
Experts believe that a large proportion of households in North America use dimmers. In response to energy conservation and emission reduction, the market for TRIAC with LED light source has begun to sprout, but the current must be maintained after conduction, otherwise there will be flickering. Safety regulations are also to be established, and LED and TRIAC products are expected to be available in the third quarter.
Focusing on the growing demand for LED dimmers, Texas Instruments has achieved dimming matching through IC control rules, with a view to taking a share. Texas Instruments designed the power supply as a linear drive. Its fixed-on duty cycle control method will follow the normal waveform of the sine wave to achieve the dimming function. The Texas Instruments LED driver IC power factor (PF) is greater than 0.96 and the current harmonic is less than 6%. It also works with triode AC (TRIAC) with dimming.
Due to the complicated design of LED lamps, the demand for high integration and customization solutions is relatively large compared to the lamp market. Even though the lighting manufacturer has a power supply and lighting department, the demand for the evaluation module (EVM) is still quite large. For this demand, Texas Instruments tends to introduce an EVM that is closer to the actual application. In other words, to provide the appearance of the customer's motherboard. (FormFactor) circuit design, which is almost equivalent to semi-finished modules, is therefore favored by customers.
Luminous efficiency / price for the development of LED lights / main lighting system design
The development of white LEDs has brought unprecedented solutions. Designers now have greater flexibility to try out the appearance of various types of lights. Characteristic lights will even become the hallmark of cars.
To install LEDs as standard headlights, the overall system needs to be re-planned, such as more sophisticated temperature management, optimized high-resolution optics, and optimized electronics for connecting to the car's power system, in addition to the future of the lights The serious challenge will come from the application of brightness requirements outside the car.
Nowadays, exterior lighting applications such as taillights, third brake lights, directional lights, side lights, low beam lights and high beam lights require high lumens. In fact, the number of lumens depends on the efficiency of the optical equipment used. The more economical the optical system employed, the lower the lumens required to display the application. The requirements for the third brake light are 25~60 lumens, and the direction light is 50~120 lumens. It is ordered according to European and American standards. In addition, the low beam and high beam require high brightness. Currently, the value of each LED is set to 400 lumens. As for the decree, the headlights are required to have a lumens value of 1,500 lumens. This data is also based on the optical and temperature system scheme used. In addition, the uniformity of the light source for the xenon lamp or other lamp is quite strict, but it is still difficult to break through the physical characteristics of the LED.
As for LED main lighting, manufacturers generally believe that LED main lighting still needs a period of brewing to truly achieve a large number of commercialization, of which price is one of the key points. In addition, today's LED heat dissipation, power drive life and lamp compatibility, intelligent control and price are urgent issues for LED lighting systems.
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